The first meeting of the UK’s new Cryptoassets Taskforce took place on 21 May 2018. The Taskforce was first announced in April by the Chancellor of the Exchequer as part of the Government’s Fintech Sector Strategy. Senior leaders from the Government and the financial regulators met to agree the Taskforce’s objectives, which include exploring the impact of cryptoassets, […]
The FCA has published a memorandum of understanding (MoU) it has entered with the Insolvency Service (IS). The MoU sets out the agreement between the IS and the FCA that governs the exchange of information to better deliver the objectives of both organisations, in particular, in respect of information relating to misconduct, investigations and enforcement. […]
The FCA has today published a decision notice in which it has banned a director, Darren Newton, from working in any regulated activity in the financial services sector. The FCA found that Mr Newton had used customers’ money to purchase a debt management firm, First Step Finance Limited. The FCA commented that this “showed a […]
JMLSG has published updates to its guidance in respect of asset finance and syndicated lending. The guidance: in respect of asset finance, describes the main types of asset finance and discussed when its provision involves regulated activities for the purposes of FSMA. It then sets out key features that can decrease or increase money laundering […]
The European Central Bank (ECB) has published a summary of the responses it received to its second consultation on developing a euro unsecured overnight interest rate. The consultation follows the ECB’s decision to develop a daily euro unsecured overnight interest rate based on data already available to the Eurosystem. The rate is due to be finalised before 2020 and will complement […]
FCA is consulting on guidance for firms setting out what factors under the Consumer Rights Act they should take into account when they are drafting and reviewing variation terms. The draft guidance sets out a list of things FCA says firms should take into account, which would include: how valid the reason for variation is […]
Following its consultation on effective financial management and planning for insurance firms and groups, the PRA has now published its final policy statement PS10/18, and Supervisory Statement SS4/18, ‘Financial management and planning by insurers’. The Supervisory Statement (which has been modified in the light of responses to the consultation) includes a framework for the: development […]
Following our successful seminar on 10th May, read our blog updates.
The NCA and Transparency International have warned of the risks Brexit presents of the UK being used as a vehicle for money launderers and corruption. Responding to the NCA’s identification of the risks, TI said: the UK should speed up plans to introduce a public register of the real owners of overseas companies that buy […]
OFSI has published a list of FAQs for importers and exporters focussing on the application of financial sanctions. It notes the separate regimes and potentially the need for separate licences that may be required from OFSI in relation to financial sanctions and the Export Control Joint Unit for trade sanctions. It notes some key risks […]
The Solicitors’ Regulation Authority has fined Anthony Gale, partner at Maurice Smiths solicitors who was also its compliance officer and MLRO, £10,000 for various conduct failings in relation to a number of mortgages. Mr Gale acted on a number of conveyances at the instruction of third parties without confirming the instructions with the client. The […]
The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) upheld a complaint about a credit card advertisement broadcast by Intelligent Lending Limited t/a Ocean Finance. The complainant challenged whether the advertisement should have included a representative APR. The radio advertisement, broadcasted in January 2018, stated “Apparently there are still some people who say they don’t want to apply for an Ocean credit […]
HM Treasury has published the response to its September 2017 consultation on the proposed Goods Mortgages Bill and has announced that it is no longer planning to introduce new legislation on this subject at this time. This follows a review of the existing legislation governing creation of security over goods by individuals which began in 2014. In a 2016 report, the Law […]
The Council has formally adopted MLD5 in its meeting of 14 May. The changes to MLD4, already agreed between the Council and Parliament, include: greater transparency of beneficial ownership of companies and trusts; addressing the risks of prepaid cards and virtual currencies; greater cooperation between FIUs; and enhanced checks on transactions involving high-risk countries. The […]
UK Finance, the Financial Data and Technology Association, the Electronic Money Association and techUK have jointly published voluntary guidelines. The guidelines are directed at account servicing payment service providers, account information and payment initiation services and technical service providers. The guidelines seek to increase customer protection in relation to ‘screen scraping’, including by promoting the […]
The Financial Guidance and Claims Act has received Royal Assent. The Act: establishes a single financial guidance body, and sets out its objectives, functions and funding details. It also sets out requirements on regulators to make guidance and permits the making of regulations that ban unsolicited direct marketing relating to pensions and other financial products […]
FCA has confirmed that it will “retire” with immediate effect FG12/15: RDR: independent and restricted advice, and FG14/1: Supervising retail investment advice: inducements and conflicts of interest. It consulted last December on the proposal to do so, as it considers their content has been largely superseded by rule changes, including those implementing MiFID 2.
PRA and FCA have published the first final notice for breach of an Individual Conduct Rule. They have jointly fined James (Jes) Staley £642,430 for breach of Individual Conduct Rule 2 (failure to act with due skill, care and diligence), after he tried to find out who had sent an anonymous letter. The letter claimed […]
The High Court has sanctioned an application by Lloyds Bank PLC, Bank of Scotland PLC and Lloyds Bank Corporate Markets PLC for a ring-fencing scheme. This is the second scheme to come before the courts and be approved, after Barclays Bank plc and Woolwich Plan Managers’ was approved in March. RBS’ scheme has been sanctioned by […]
The Government has published its response to the House of Lords EU Committee Report on financial regulation and supervision after Brexit. It offers assurances that: the UK will continue to lead global standards; the Government is already taking action under the EU Withdrawal Bill to incorporate the acquis. It is working on how to address […]
The “Ping-Pong” stage of the Sanctions and AML Bill will take place on 21 May.
ABI and BIBA have published a set of guiding principles and action points that insurers and brokers should follow, which the associations intend will address some of the issues that currently lead to excessive differences between new and renewal premiums. The principles apply to home, motor and travel insurance, but exclude policies such as pet […]
ESMA has created a new portal for checking the authorisation status of investment firms, trading venues and DRSPs authorised under MiFID 2, UCITS management companies and AIFMs and also funds managed or marketed in the EU.
FCA’s latest Policy Development Update promises over the next couple of months the overdue feedback on fees and levies policy proposals with consultation on rates proposals. No dates are set for any other key papers.
FCA has published its interim report into the mortgage market. Although it is pleased with how competition is working to the benefit of many people, it has made some suggestions for improvement. It found that there are generally high levels of choice for consumers and that consumers engage with their options, with evidence of switching […]
Transparency International has welcomed a cross-party amendment to the Sanctions and AML Bill that will require all British Overseas Territories to introduce public registered to reveal the individuals behind companies formed in their jurisdictions. If they do not do so, a draft Order in Council should be prepared no later than the end of 2020 […]
NCA is to conduct a pre-investigative evidential review into allegations of fraud, money laundering and corruption in relation to the business of the then HBOS Impaired Assets Division in London and the South East, that went wider than the investigation which resulted in prosecutions last year.
Treasury has made the Insurance Distribution (Regulated Activities and Miscellaneous Amendments) Order 2018 and laid it before Parliament on 1 May. The Order makes changes, mainly to the RAO, to reflect the changes to the regulatory perimeter consequent on IDD implementation and will fully come into force on 1 October. The main changes generally update […]
In support of the Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Bill, the FCO has published out a Policy Note which describes the government’s intended approach to: licensing applications in relation to asset freezes, including how it intends to deal with applications it can foresee, general licenses and common grounds for application; maintaining a similar framework to the current one […]
The Bank of England has announced that the New Payment System Operator Limited (NPSO) has taken over responsibility for the Bacs and Faster Payment retail payment systems. This consolidation is the result of work by both the Bank of England and the Payment Systems Regulator. The objective is to develop the capability and capacity of […]
The FCA has published its second annual report setting out responses from wholesale banking firms to the FCA’s conduct question set. The FCA notes that the second report indicates progress has been made from the time when 5 Conduct Questions were first introduced, in 2015. The FCA indicates that they intend to extend the 5 […]
Following its consultation in 2017, the FCA has now published its final rules on reformed FSCS funding. These rules will take effect from April 2019. Additionally the FCA has opened a consultation on draft rules relating to Professional Indemnity Insurance requirements for Personal Investment Firms, CP 18/11. The proposed rules will require that policies do […]
BEIS is consulting on reforms to the laws governing Scottish Limited Partnerships to address the illegitimate uses to which some SLPs have been put. The Government has found evidence that SLPs have been exploited by money launderers, including one scheme that used over 100 SLPs to move up to $80bn. The proposals include introducing safeguards […]
Treasury has published its response to its consultation on cheque imaging. It received 15 responses, and engaged with 4 other institutions. All agreed that a copy of a cheque should be made available to customers on request, and most agreed that no cheque user should be left out of pocket as a result of any […]
FCA has published the final list of the most representative services linked to a payment account and subject to a fee for the purposes of the Payment Accounts Regulations. Firms will have to use the terminology from 31 October. There are 15 defined services: maintaining the account arranged overdraft unarranged overdraft refusing a payment due […]
PRA has published a policy and supervisory statement setting out its expectation of the model risk management practices firms should adopt when using stress test models. It expects firms to apply the principles proportionately, with the larger firms applying them in full. The principles require banks: to have an established definition of a model, and […]
Ahead of its adoption, the Council and Parliament text of MLD5 was published on 26 April. After formal adoption it will need to be published in the Official Journal, and it will come into force 18 months after that. Austria and the Commission both expressed disappointment that the transparency provisions were not more onerous.
The European Commission has updated its website with notices on plans for Brexit in several industry sectors including financial services. The latest news reports a request from the Commission and Treasury to the ECB and BoE to convene a technical working group on risk management in the transition period. There are also some terms of […]
FCA (in one case together with FOS) has made several instruments amending the Handbook. Changes include: changes to FEES (from 1 April) to ensure better mapping of tariff data and that Directive and non-Directive insurers are treated consistently. Further change creates a new fee-block for consumer credit lending as a mechanism for collecting the levy for […]
Michel Barnier has spoken to Eurofi. He described Brexit as a lose-lose situation, with no added value. He said: there can be no frictionless trade outside the Customs Union and Single Market so businesses will be faced with barriers and checks that are not in place today and this will have an impact on value […]
Andrew Bailey has given a regulatory perspective on asset management. His speech considered: market-wide risks: he looked at the growth in the asset management sector and particularly the increase in proportionate growth of the asset management sector over others. open-ended funds: he considered the risks of funds offering daily redemption in illiquid assets which also […]
In a recent speech, Vice-President of the EC, Valdis Dombrovskis, warned of the consequences arising from the fact that the transition period agreed at a European level was part of the overall future withdrawal agreement. Therefore, if finalisation of the withdrawal agreement was compromised due to issues such as the Irish border and governance of […]
The FCA has published a speech by its Chief Executive, Andrew Bailey, in which he spoke about open markets through the prism of Brexit, including the prospects and reasons for a transition period and what the steady-state future could look like. Bailey highlighted the paramount need for financial stability and argued that this would be […]
FATF has updated on recent discussions with the FinTech and RegTech sectors. It has recently focused on: using digital IDs for CDD. Institutions increasingly use this, and discussions focused on whether there is any need for change or clarification in the FATF recommendations to support the practice; and the regulatory landscape for crypto-assets. Participants stressed […]
The European Commission has reported that consumers still face some obstacles when trying to compare investment funds, life insurance or personal pensions. The report finds that recent EU measures, such as MiFID 2 and the PRIIPs Regulation, should help, but that consumers find a great variance in costs for similar product categories cross-border. It also says most consumers […]
Peter Wyman’s report on a review of debt advice funding has been published. The report makes several recommendations, including: face-to-face advice should still be widely available but there should be general and phased shifts by free-to-client providers from face-to-face to phone and then to webchat; free-to-client providers should commit to 20% efficiency savings over the next 2 financial years, […]
Robert Barrington, Executive Director of Transparency International, has written to David Green at the SFO warning that DPAs, while a useful tool that TI supports must nevertheless be used properly, so as not to become a “soft option” for those guilty of corruption. TI is concerned that discounted DPA settlements will give that impression. The […]
As part of the proposed process of transferring the regulation of Claims Management Companies to the FCA, HM Treasury is consulting on draft regulations that will form part of a final statutory instrument creating a new framework of regulation for Claims Management Companies (CMCs). The draft regulations set out the proposed permissions that CMCs will […]
Barclays has confirmed that FCA and PRA have issued draft warning notices in respect of their investigations into the the bank and its group CEO Jes Staley in respect of an attempt by Mr Staley to identify the author of an anonymous letter. The regulators propose a fine for breach of Individual Conduct Rule 2 […]
Philip Hammond is to use the G7 and IMF meetings in Washington this week to call for: international agreement on denying North Korea access to finance. He wants all jurisdictions to push their banks and insurance companies to be more alert to spotting new methods of deception that attempt to bypass restrictions; and the IMF to target global corruption. He […]
HM Treasury and the US Treasury Department have announced the formation of a Financial Regulatory Working Group, to formalise engagement on bilateral regulatory cooperation. The group is scheduled to meet twice a year
Following its vote to approve MLD5, the EP has now published the provisional version of the approved text.
FCA has created a new page on its website explaining the basic advice regime under MiFID 2 and the IDD. It explains it needed to update its guidance to firms to explain the impact of these pieces of legislation. In particular, it addresses how it needed to apply some MiFID 2 requirements (or “at least […]
The latest complaints data from FCA shows 3.76m complaints were received by firms in the second half of 2017. This is a significant increase on the previous half year, with 1.55 million complaints relating to PPI – 40% more than the previous half year and the highest level for over 4 years. Similarly, firms paid […]
FCA has written a “Dear CEO” letter on irredeemable preference shares and similar instruments. FCA is looking to ensure investors have all the information they need to assess the risks and rewards of certain fixed income shares and is particularly concerned about those described or implied in some way to be permanent. It therefore wants […]
Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) has agreed to pay contributions of up to £3.5 billion to its pension scheme in readiness for UK ring-fencing legislation taking effect from 1 January 2026. RBS has agreed a Memorandum of Understanding with the trustee of the Main Scheme of the RBS Group Pension Fund under which it will […]
The European Parliament adopted in plenary session on 19 April the proposals for MLD5. In an EP press release prior to the vote: the proposals to require public access to beneficial ownership information, to introduce registers for beneficial ownership of trusts and for banks accounts and safe deposit boxes were highlighted as important measures; EP […]
The Bank of England has announced that TransferWise, an FCA-regulated non-bank PSP has joined Faster Payments as a direct participant. This is the first non-bank PSP to join a UK payment system settling in central bank money. BoE, FCA and the Payment Systems Regulator all heralded the development.
We are pleased to be hosting and speaking at a breakfast briefing for MLROs.com, giving an update on financial crime prevention laws and regulations and related developments. Attendance is free, but please register through MLROs.com, where you will find further details of the event.
FCA has published an insight article looking at the ongoing problems for victims of APP scams. The article looks at initiatives to minimise the risks of falling victim to these scams and, in particular, how the advent of Faster Payments brings both advantages and bigger risks to consumers. The article considers the potential safety feature […]
We have written an article on FCA’s proposals for updating the Financial Crime Guide.
The Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy is consulting on proposals which, among other issues, seek to to improve the consumer experience in regulated markets for utilities, telecommunications and financial services and to ensure consumers buying and selling online benefit from new technology and business models, and have appropriate protection for their personal data. […]
The PRA has published a ‘Dear CEO‘ letter which addresses capital extraction requests from insurance firms in run-off, and firms not supplying sufficient information to the PRA. It reminds firms of the need to closely consider Supervisory Statement 4/14 on capital extractions, and sets out illustrations of the types of information they expect to see […]
The Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities has published its report for the second half of 2017. This report highlights the following potential sources of instability: repricing of risk premia uncertainties regarding the terms of Britain’s exit from the EU; cyber attacks; and climate change. The report urges firms and supervisory authorities to seek […]
The PRA has today published two consultation papers relating to Solvency II. The first consultation paper “Solvency II: External audit of the public disclosure requirement” sets out the PRA’s proposals rule that requires the external audit of parts of the Solvency and Financial Condition Report, under Rule 2 of the External Audit part of the […]
The FCA and the PRA have both published their business plans for 2018/2019. The FCA’s business plan shines a spotlight on consumer protection, including in relation to pension products and high-cost credit, as an area of concern for the forthcoming year, as well as ongoing programmes such as Brexit, and firms’ culture and governance (including […]
The European Central Bank (ECB) has launched a consultation on cyber resilience oversight expectations. The consultation contains a draft document which defines the ECB’s expectations in terms of cyber resilience, based on existing global guidance published by the Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures and the Board of the International Organisation of Securities Commissions (CPMI-IOSCO) […]
The FCA has published a speech, by Karina McTeague, Director of Retail Banking Supervision, on opportunities offered by the Payment Services Directive (PSD2) and open banking. Highlights of the speech include: the FCA has a real interest in the Open Banking Implementation Entity’s successful delivery of the Competition and Market Authority’s open banking application programming interface […]
The FCA and PRA have, separately, published consultation papers on regulated fees and levies for 2018/19. In its consultation paper, the FCA sets out the proposed 2018/19 regulatory fees and levies for itself, the Financial Ombudsman Service, the Money Advice Service, the Pension Wise service and HM Treasury’s illegal money lending expenses. The FCA also […]
The European Central Bank (ECB) has published its annual report for 2017. The annual report sets out the ECB’s activities in the economic and financial environment of 2017. Amongst other things, the report focuses on: the economic recovery in the euro area; the ECB’s monetary policy decisions, which lead to the ECB recalibrating its asset […]
The European Parliament’s Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) published its draft report on the financial services regulation and supervision relationship between the EU and third countries. The draft report contains a motion for a European Parliament resolution and includes, amongst other things calls: on the European Commission to adopt a legislative act establishing […]
The CMA has confirmed that it has decided to continue the investigation into a price comparison website’s (PCW) use of certain ‘most favoured nation’ clauses in its contracts with home insurance providers. In the context of PCWs, ‘most favoured nation’ clauses require the provider of a product that wishes to offer their product on the […]
The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has published a summary of the roundtable that it held, on 12 February 2018, with asset managers. The roundtable was held as part of CMA’s work on the market investigation into the supply and acquisition of investment consultancy services and fiduciary management services to and by institutional investors and employers in the UK.
The funding deficits of defined benefit (DB) pension schemes have made news headlines in recent times, following the difficulties encountered by the British Steel Pension Scheme and some high profile business failures. The Government’s response was to issue a Green paper suggesting ways in which the funding and security of members’ pensions could be improved. […]
FCA’s latest policy development update does not promise anything particularly new. Key deadlines for the next quarter include: policy statement on regulatory fees and levies, with consulation on rates – during April; changes to rules and guidance in SUP under the PSR – now overdue; and possibly a policy statement on the FSCS funding review.
FCA has clarified its views on the regulation of cryptocurrency derivatives. It has previously explained that cryptocurrencies are, of themselves, not regulated although they may be part of other regulated products or services. Cryprocurrency derivatives, though, may be financial instruments for the purpose of MiFID 2. FCA says those who deal, arrange deals in, advise […]
FCA has released several documents resulting from its asset management market study. The key documents are: final rules focussing on the duties of fund managers as agents of the fund investors. The changes will require fund managers to make an annual assessment of value and to appoint at least 2 independent directors comprising at least 25% of […]
The Commons Committee for Exiting the EU has published a report setting out the key tests it says any deal agreed by October must meet. From the financial services perspective, the report notes the critical importance of UK providers being able to continue to sell their products into EU markets as they currently do and […]
Please join us for our Fintech and Insurtech Forum in London on 10 May. An expert panel will discuss the latest blockchain trends and breakthroughs. Attendance is free and you can register via our website.
The Court of Appeal has recently upheld the judgements of lower courts in a case where a loan was entered into on the express representation from the borrower that the property would not be used as a residence. When the borrower defaulted, it sought to argue that, despite having completed a question on the application […]
A paper published by the Whitechapel Think Tank, supported by UK Finance, looks at how technology can help the safe validation of identity and verification. It examines how distributed ledger technology can provide a decentralised and secure approach to validating identity and how this could benefit financial services providers and consumers.
The Treasury Committee has announced a new inquiry into economic crime. One part of the inquiry will look at the AML and sanctions regimes in the UK and how firms, individuals and the wider economy are impacted by them and the UK legislative and regulatory framework around them. The other will look at the economic […]
FCA has reported that the defendants in its case against Capital Alternatives have been ordered to pay compensation and that it has obtained new undertakings from or injunctions against some of the defendants to protect against the risk of dissipating or diminishing assets.
FCA has warned firms it is prepared to take action against those who have failed to implement rules that have now been in force for a year designed to clearly show customers who are due to renew their general insurance the premium they paid the previous year. RAC has just agreed to contact customers after […]
John Glen, Economic Secretary to the Treasury, has responded to the Lords EU Financial Affairs Sub-Committee’s January report on the future of financial regulation and supervision post-Brexit. The response, which was prepared before the most recent developments on the Brexit arrangements, notes that the Government is alive to many of the issues the report raised and sets out […]
The FCA has published a speech by Andrew Bailey, Chief Executive of the FCA, on Brexit, following the agreement reached between the UK and EU on a transition period. Key issues highlighted by Mr Bailey include: the importance of a transitional period for everyone involved in financial services on both sides; the need for continuing authorisation for […]
The Bank of England (BoE) has published a press release setting out its regulatory approach to preparations for Brexit, including its approach to the authorisation and supervision of international banks, insurers and central counterparties (CCP). The update follows the agreement between the UK and EU27 that there should be an implementation period until the end of 2020 as […]
The European Banking Authority (EBA) has published a Consultation Paper on the application of the existing Joint Committee Guidelines on complaints-handling to authorities competent for supervising new institutions under the Mortgage Credit Directive (MCD) and the Payment Services Directive (PSD2). The deadline for comments is 27 May 2018.
The FCA has published a Policy Statement (PS18/7) and Finalised Guidance (FG18/2) on staff incentives, remuneration and performance management in consumer credit. The Policy Statement sets out final rules for staff incentives, remuneration and performance management in consumer credit firms. The Finalised Guidance sets out examples of good and bad practice observed by the FCA […]
The FCA has published a Guidance Consultation on amending the FCA’s guidance on financial crime (GC18/1). The proposed changes include the addition of a chapter on insider dealing and market manipulation, and making miscellaneous changes as a result of recent regulatory changes to ensure the guide remains up to date. The deadline for comments on the proposals is […]
The European Central Bank (ECB) has published its Annual Report on its supervisory activities for 2017. The Annual Report sets out the ECB’s key achievements for 2017. In addition, the ECB published a speech on the Annual Report given by Daniele Nouy, Chair of the ECB’s Supervisory Board, which includes focus areas on general developments in the […]
The FCA has published a Policy Statement on pension transfers advice (PS18/6). This follows the FCA’s June 2017 consultation, which looked at improving the quality of pension transfer advice. The policy statement sets out new rules on pension transfer advice (most of which come into force on 1 April 2018) and seeks views on additional changes, […]
The Treasury has published its first Fintech Sector Strategy, setting out the government’s proposals to secure the UK’s place as a preferred location to start and grow a fintech business. The paper announces a number of measures, including: a Cryptoassets Task Force will be established by HM Treasury, the Bank of England and the FCA, […]
Following the announcement in September last year that the EU and the USA signed a bilateral agreement on insurance and reinsurance prudential measures, the Council of the EU has now formally adopted a decision to conclude this agreement. This agreement can now provide legal certainty to EU and US insurers in the application of regulatory […]
In a recent report the Complaints Commissioner expressed concern about the absence of published information about how and in what circumstances information about live ombudsman cases may be shared between the FOS and the FCA. The complaint alleged that the FCA illegally influenced the FOS in its handling of complaints against a firm represented by […]
FCA has published a draft of its approach to enforcement and supervision. The documents follow its publication of its Mission, in which it committed to publishing a series of documents setting out how it carries out its main activities. The approach to supervision explains FCA’s commitment to being forward-looking and pre-emptive, focusing on firms’ cultures […]
The Pensions Regulator and FCA have published a Joint Call for Input on their strategic approach for regulating the pensions and retirement income sector. The strategic approach will set out how the FCA and Pensions Regulator will work together to tackle the key risks facing the pensions sector over the next 5-10 years. Roundatables will be held in 3 […]
The FCA has published a speech by Andrew Bailey, FCA Chief Executive, on transforming culture in financial services. Mr Bailey highlights the following issues: work on firm culture is an important priority for the FCA; essays in the FCA’s Discussion Paper on transforming culture in financial services indicate that culture is about encouraging and incentivising good things, […]
The Department for Exiting the EU has published a draft Withdrawal Agreement following the conclusion of a key set of negotiations. David Davis and Michel Barnier both welcomed the progress. Mr Davis heralded the agreement, which provides (among other things) that international agreements that arise as a result of the UK’s membership of the EU will […]